In Poul Anderson's "The Moonrakers" (Beyond The Beyond, London, 1973), Mars, colonized and terraformed, handles most Solar merchant shipping. The asteroids, colonized and hollowed out with barbaric opulence, have broken free from Mars, prey on Martian ships and sell to the Incorporated State on Earth.
The terraforming of Mars was financed by "the Great Swindle." (p. 143) I will have to reread the rest of the story but what I remember from before is that this "Swindle" was never explained, thus, I thought, implying that this story is a sequel to another. I will be interested if any blog reader can comment?